Wednesday, 16 March 2016

The Frost and Wood Warehouse at 230 Princess Street

Written by Laura McKay, on behalf of Heritage Winnipeg Corp.
Thank you to Sabrina Treyturik, Leasing Agent for The Edge on Princess, for her assistance with photos for this article.
To follow up on this or any other articles on the blog, contact Heritage Winnipeg's Executive Director.



The warehouse at 230 Princess Street. Image courtesy of the City of Winnipeg Historical Report.
The construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) in western Canada, brought with it a boom in Winnipeg real estate. Land prices and the city's population grew rapidly, and solid brick structures began to replace the small wooden shacks that had been the norm. The city also began to divide itself into sectors - residential, commercial, and industrial - as the landscape changed. 

The view of McDermot Avenue facing west from Main Street ca. 1881. Image courtesy of the City of Winnipeg Historical Report and the Provincial Archives of Manitoba, N19876.
The railway brought with it commercial interests, both local and from Eastern Canada - within a very short time, Winnipeg took on the role of the wholesale hub for all of Western Canada. Companies such as R.J. Whitla, Stobart, Eden, and Company, George D. Wood, and J.H. Ashdown were all established in the city prior to the CPR boom.

The same view of McDermot Avenue ca. 1902. Image courtesy of the City of Winnipeg Historical Report and the Provincial Archives of Manitoba.
As the centre of commerce for Western Canada and one of the fastest growing urban centres in North America, Winnipeg experienced a period of unchecked growth from 1900-1914. Princess Street was one of the area's most important thoroughfares, and in 1906, that was the location chosen for the construction of the Frost and Wood Warehouse.

The Frost and Wood Company

Original Winnipeg home of Frost and Wood at 164 Princess Street ca. 1905. Image courtesy of the City of Winnipeg Historical Report and the M. Peterson Collection.
Frost and Wood Company Ltd. was a farm implement dealer founded in Smith Falls (60km southwest of Ottawa) in May 1846 by Ebenezer Frost and Alexander Wood. The company grew steadily and expanded across the country, becoming incorporated in 1899. When it came to Winnipeg in 1890, it found a home in the Grain Exchange Building at 164 Princess Street. However, they quickly outgrew this location and built a new warehouse at 230 Princess Street in 1906. 

Warehouse Design

 
Construction of the Frost and Wood WArehouse, ca. 1906. The Cockshutt Plow Company Building is in the background. Image courtesy of the City of Winnipeg Historical Report and reproduced from the Manitoba Free Press, December 6, 1906 p. 36.

The warehouse was designed by architect J.H. Cadham in the Romanesque Revival style that was popular in North American warehouse districts around the turn of the 20th century. The style makes use of strong, rough textures, its massiveness, the flatness of the elevations, the rhythmic placement of the windows, and the use of the rounded arch. The solid appearance of these buildings made it the style of choice for warehouse districts wanting to portray stability and strength. 

The Peck Building at 33 Princes Street, built in 1893. Photo taken in 2000. Image courtesy of City of Winnipeg Historical Report and the City of Winnipeg.
Winnipeg's Exchange District has a large number of buildings in this style, including the Peck Building (33 Princess Street), which was built in 1893-1894, and the Kelly Block (181 Bannatyne Avenue), which was built in 1904. 

The Kelly Block at 181 Bannatyne Avenue, built in 1904. Photo taken in 2000. Image courtesy of the City of Winnipeg Historical Report and the City of Winnipeg.
The warehouse at 230 Princess is constructed of solid brick walls with stone accenting and rests on a rubblestone foundation. Large wooden beams and posts throughout provide internal support and the floors are made of vertically-laid planking, making this an extremely sturdy structure. In overall design, it is very similar to the buildings at 250 McDermot and 296 McDermot, which were both designed and constructed by the same architect prior to 1900.

The building has two unusual features for the style: the roof, which was designed with peaks and valleys, rather than the normal flat design, and the windows of the south facade on the second to fourth floors have unusually shaped wooden heads with an arched area above that was bricked in with no set pattern to the bricklaying. The windows on the exterior display no such arching. 

The unusual brickwork on the interior of a window. Image courtesy of the City of Winnipeg Historical Report and Murray Peterson.
The Cockshutt Plow Company of Brantford, ON was a next-door neighbour for the company on Princess Street and in 1909, acquired an interest in the Frost and Wood Company. They would ultimately take it over, although the Frost and Wood Company was still listed as the owner of the building on Princess into the 1940s. By the late 1930s, the new company was selling machinery around the world. 

Cockshutt Plow Company Warehouse, 238 Princess Street. Built in 1902-3, it was designed by S.F. Peters and was given three upper floors in 1906. Image courtesy of the City of Winnipeg Historical Report and reproduced from the Manitoba Free Press, December 6, 1906 p. 49.
Frost and Wood was no longer listed in the city directories by the First World War. Tenants of the Princess Street building included the Empire Cream Separator Company of Canada as well as the Goold Shapley and Muir Company (gas and gasoline engines). 

Vault door that remains in the main lobby of the building. Image courtesy of Sabrina Treyturik, Leasing Agent for The Edge on Princess.
Over the next six decades, owners of the building would include the Manitoba Co-operative Wholesale Limited (1945-55), Federated Co-operatives Limited (1956-59), and Eatern Smallware and Stationary Limited (1969-76). Tenants during this time also included Boultons Storage, City Dray Company, and Crown Cork and Seal Company (all 1936), Canada Cycle and Motor (1943) and 20th Century Head Wear Limited (1970). 

Clean out door for a heating shaft, dated to 1898, that remains in the building. Image courtesy of Sabrina Treyturik, Leasing Agent for The Edge on Princess.
Williams Restaurant Supply Limited purchased and occupied the building in 1979. The firm would later become Williams-Cassidy's Restaurant Supply in 1990, in a merge with Toronto-based Cassidy's Limited, the third oldest company in Canada at the time. However, in early 2000, the company was placed into receivership and its assets were liquidated. The Winnipeg store's stock was sold and 34 employees lost their jobs, leaving the building vacant. 

Conversion to the Edge

Image courtesy of Sabrina Treyturik, Leasing Agent for The Edge on Princess.

In the late 2000s, Mark Hofer purchased the property to be redeveloped into apartments now known as The Edge on Princess. News articles about the redevelopment list the cost as approximately $4 million. A showroom/commercial space remained on the main floor.

Loft door that remains in the building. Image courtesy of Sabrina Treyturik, Leasing Agent for The Edge on Princess.

News from the Conversion:

COMMERCIAL REAL ESTATE A New York state of mind (Winnipeg Free Press)
Housing break for students? (Winnipeg Free Press)
Core eyesore gets new life (Winnipeg Free Press)
More rental units added to apartment plan (Winnipeg Free Press)


Image courtesy of Sabrina Treyturik, Leasing Agent for The Edge on Princess.

Image courtesy of Sabrina Treyturik, Leasing Agent for The Edge on Princess.

Image courtesy of Sabrina Treyturik, Leasing Agent for The Edge on Princess.

Image courtesy of Sabrina Treyturik, Leasing Agent for The Edge on Princess.

Image courtesy of Sabrina Treyturik, Leasing Agent for The Edge on Princess.

Image courtesy of Sabrina Treyturik, Leasing Agent for The Edge on Princess.

Sources & Links

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The Woodbine Hotel at 466 Main Street

Article by Laura McKay, on behalf of Heritage Winnipeg Corp.
To follow up on this or any other articles on the blog, contact Heritage Winnipeg's Executive Director. 


The west side of Main Street between McDermot and Bannatyne ca. 1880s. Dufferin Hotel, later the Woodbine, is shown by the arrow. Image courtesy of the Provincial Archives of Manitoba and the City of Winnipeg Historical Report.
The Woodbine Hotel at 466 Main Street was built in 1878 as Dufferin Hall, a small hostel that was about 22 feet wide and approximately twice as long. The original building was a wood frame structure and unlike the the current structure, did not extend all the way to Albert Street. 

The scene along Main Street in the early 80s was filled with bars and saloons (the hotels that housed them stretched from the CPR Station on Higgins to what is now Union Station) and were accompanied by con artists, prostitution, and gamblers in large numbers. In 1881, there were 64 saloons flourishing along this Main Street strip, leading James Gray to later refer to the area as a "perpetually self-renewing quagmire" (James H. Gray Booze Macmillan of Canada (Toronto) 1972 p. 10).  

Bars became the focal point of social activity, making the sale of alcohol a very profitable business, bringing with it the familial and public consequences of drunkenness. These bars looked very little like the businesses we know today - there were no tables or chairs in these establishments, minimum decoration, and almost no concessions to comfort. Prairie saloons were designed for patrons that drank standing up, with only a footrail around the serving bar and spittoons placed strategically along the floor. These establishments were designed for the sole purpose of drinking to get drunk. 

The Woodbine Hotel shows as the dark brick between two lighter buildings ca. 1882. Image courtesy of the Provincial Archives of Manitoba and the City of Winnipeg Historical Report.
Dufferin Hall would appear to have been exclusively used as a saloon, with no rooms available for customers to stay in. The hall was sold sometime in 1880 or 1881 and renamed the Woodbine, after a popular racetrack and large hotel in Toronto. The hope was that the familiar name would attract expatriates from eastern Canada.

In 1882, the Woodbine changed hands once again, this time sold to two of the city's top proprietors. James O'Connor and H.A. Chadwick owned and managed several successful Winnipeg hostelries, usually turning the businesses over quickly and at a handsome profit. From 1882 to 1883, O'Connor partnered with James Dimmick to manage the Woodbine, maintaining the bar, and possibly establishing a dining room in the hotel. 

Shortly thereafter, the hotel was purchased by Melville Wood, son of Manitoba's Chief Justice, who suffered the misfortune of having purchased the hotel at an inflated price and being forced to sell in a soft market. He continued on as proprietor of the Woodbine and may well have regained its ownership. 

The Woodbine Hotel, painted white, ca. 1884. Image courtesy of the Provincial Archives of Manitoba and the City of Winnipeg Historical Report.
In 1884, the Woodbine announced that its boarding quarters and restaurant were under the management of a Mrs. Douglas. Oysters, popular as a status symbol in Winnipeg, were served as seasonal delicacies and a respectable restaurant and billiard room occupied the second floor. The saloon on the first floor was advertised as "the rendezvous of the leading businessmen" in 1886 (The City of Winnipeg Thompson and Bayer Winnipeg 1886 p. 153). 

Further improvements were made in 1889, when the restaurant was also re-established under the management of John Gurn. Shortly thereafter, Edward H. Hebb purchased the Woodbine and he would continue to own and operate it for the next 30 years. Initially, he worked in partnership with John Wilkes, who worked as a bartender in the hotel. The City of Winnipeg directory in 1896 listed the Woodbine as "Hebb and Wilkes, Saloon", demonstrating its contribution to Main Street at the time.

Sometime between the early 1880s and 1899, a light-coloured brick veneer was added to the facade and the two-storey structure was expanded back to open onto Albert Street. This would have required major restructuring of the hotel's interior, the remains of which could still be seen on some of the finishing when the City's Historical Report was completed in 1985. 

A dark brick veneer was applied to the hotel in the summer of 1899, with heavy limestone trim, a stone parapet, and a scrolled datestone displaying "1899" in the centre. Under the proprietorship of Hebb and his later partner, Denis Lennon, the Woodbine prospered with a saloon, billiards, and a restaurant, with private rooms on the second floor. 

W.J. Bulman, creator of the Bulman Brothers. Image courtesy of the MHS Memorable Manitobans website.

In the fall of 1904, a fire broke out in the printing shop of the Bulman Brothers, located along Bannatyne between Albert and Main. The gusting wind accompanied by the chemicals needed for the printing process fanned the fire to an inferno. The fire jumped Bannatyne to the Ashdown store where more flammable goods were stored. The resulting explosions roared back, igniting the roof of the Woodbine. The walls of the Bulman Block collapsed, and the building fell onto the roof of the hotel. No one died in the fire but damage to the area was extensive. 

Both the Bulman and Ashdown buildings had to be demolished and the Woodbine and what became Birts' Saddlery (then the Dufferin Block) were heavily damaged. Bulman's was never rebuilt, nor was the space ever redeveloped, leaving the open space that is now the parking lot at the corner of Bannatyne and Albert.

The fire damage provided an opportunity for Hebb and Lennon to expand their establishment. They rebuilt the damaged interior and added a third storey to the back of the hotel, designed by Architect J.H. Cadham. For some unknown reason, the third storey ended about thirty feet from the front of the building, creating a step-back that lasted until 1923. Another fire in 1923 again provided the new owners with an opportunity for renovation, this time extending the third floor all the way to Main Street and reworking the front facade under the supervision of Architect E.W. Crayson. 

The facade was reduced to two bays of double windows on the upper floors and a storefront entrance on the ground floor. Three brick piers framed the windows beneath a copper painted cornice. The modern, heavily windowed front was enabled by a steel skeleton to support it. Prism and plate glass, some set in copper, trimmed the the doors and windows of the facade.

With nearly 100 hotels within a three-quarter mile radius of the CPR Station, the bars began to attract the interest of a growing and powerful lobby of prohibitionists. The Manitoba Prohibition Act came into effect on June 1, 1916, effectively eliminating all public and most private drinking establishments in the province. Prohibition measures were put in place by many provinces around that time, with prohibition being included in the War Measures Act of 1918.  

Interior of the Woodbine ca. 1920. Image courtesy of the Western Canada Pictorial Index, 1287-38544 and the City of Winnipeg Historical Report.
Many of Winnipeg's hotels had relied solely on their bars as a source of revenue and were devastated by the new laws. Larger hotels, along with the smaller hotels that had diversified earlier, managed to survive. The front of the Woodbine was converted into a "temperance bar", serving soft drinks, coffee, and a special prohibition concoction known as temperance beer. The MHS website explains that this beer had a maximum of 2.5% alcohol, the legal limit set by the federal government of the day.  

The long and narrow shape of the Woodbine made it perfect for adaptive reuse. A barbershop was established in part of the front along with the temperance bar. Eight of the finest Brunswick billiard tables were purchased and installed into what had been an elongated bar. Two bowling alleys were opened on the Albert Street side of the building, with one on the first floor and the second occupying the basement. It is unlikely, based on city reports of the time, that the building continued to function as a hotel, focusing instead on its recreational activities. Prohibition lasted in Winnipeg until 1927. 

Bootlegging liquor was also fairly common for small prairie hotels during prohibition, a necessity to avoid bankruptcy. When the inevitably got caught, the breweries would pay the fines in order to keep the hotels going and selling their product. By the end of prohibition, many hotels had been taken over by breweries in payment for their debts. The Woodbine was owned by Shea's, Winnipeg's largest brewery, by the time they were in turn bought out by Labatt's. When the City Report was completed in 1985, the owner had purchased the Woodbine from Labatt's in 1965, when they were forced by law to sell their hotel buildings. 

An undated photo of the Albert Street facade. Image courtesy of the City of Winnipeg Planning Department and the City of Winnipeg Historical Report.
When the bars reopened in 1927, the hotel was once again renovated, bringing the Woodbine to its 1985 basic layout and appearance. The storefront on the Albert Street entrance probably dates from 1927 or the early 1930s. When the City Report was completed in 1985, the staircases had been moved at least twice but the early detailing had survived. Pressed tin ceilings were also on all three floors as well as the basement. The heavy stone and concrete foundations are likely part of one of the earlier renovations. 

The post-prohibition laws once again required an uncomfortable and male-only atmosphere, with women only being permitted into the Woodbine as of March 1985. At that time, the Albert Street side had been converted into retail space, with the front once again serving as a small bar. Tables and chairs and shuffleboard tables had been added. 


In 2016, the retail space on Albert Street is now occupied by Across the Board, a game cafe specializing in soup and sandwich fare. 

Sources & Links

City of Winnipeg Historical Report - Long
City of Winnipeg Historical Report - Short
Manitoba Historical Society Website - 466 Main Street
Virtual Heritage Winnipeg Website - 466 Main Street 

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Wednesday, 2 March 2016

Psychic Experiments: Hamilton House at 185 Henderson Highway (Part 2 of 2)

Guest Post Written by Linda Horodecki. 
Edited by Laura McKay, on behalf of Heritage Winnipeg Corp.
To follow up on this or any other articles on the blog, contact Heritage Winnipeg's Executive Director. 

Front view of Hamilton House. Photo courtesy of Linda Horodecki.
Continued from Part 1.

Publication

Dr. Hamilton wrote many articles on spiritualism as well as on medical issues, and there were many articles written about him. The next two photographs show an article he had written in Light: A Journal of Psychical, Occult, and Mystical Research, in which he explains the phenomenon of the C.H. Spurgeon image. The first photo shows part of the first page of the article and the second photo shows the lower portion. 

Left column - "The mass, attached to Mary M.'s face, had appeared after the medium had been searched and while her hands were being continuously held and had been so held for some time, and while the hands of all present were being held. It had appeared shortly after her head, face, and neck had been re-examined by four witnesses and nothing found thereon and it had been recorded by three cameras." Right column - "The face-form appeared to be alive, or better, to represent or reflect the appearance of an individual who was alive." Date of the article is Friday, October 13, 1933.

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.

Visualization of Soldiers Lost in the War

Sir Oliver Lodge was a notable British physicist whose son Raymond was a soldier who died during the First World War. Lodge was interested in spiritualism, including attempts to contact his son Raymond. This is an enlarged view of the medium, Mary Marshall, with a teleplasmic mass attached to her face and chest that contained formations of the faces of Raymond Lodge and Jack Barnes (also died during WWI) during a séance on October 27, 1929. Raymond Lodge's face can be seen on the right side of the mass.

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.

A lifetime portrait of Raymond Lodge.

Letters to the Hamiltons 

The Hamiltons sent and received many, many letters. One such letter shown in the following paragraph is from bereaved mother Mrs. Jean Rennie. Here are some excerpts: "Last January I wrote you asking you to let me know if my Dorothy came through at any time at any of your séances & I received your reply. I have written many persons concerning this matter... Mrs. Diwock's description of her was excellent. She told me what she was fitted for & what her work is in the spirit world, etc. It has comforted me greatly, for all the impressions I had of her was just the same as the mediums. I felt like writing you as you were kind to answer my letter."

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.

Five face teleplasm from November 1928 containing images of five individuals, including that of Arthur Hamilton, who had died in 1919. 

Photographs of the medium, Mary Marshall, with a teleplasmic mass attached to her face that contained the faces of five spirits during a séance on November 25, 1928, plus photographs of two individuals. Photo caption: "Identification: Upper left, Raymond Lodge's maternal grandfather. Centre: Arthur Hamilton (d. 1919). Right unrecognized. Lower left, B.L.S. Right, David Livingstone." I believe in fact that the lower right photo represents Robert Louis Stevenson. The Hamiltons were great admirers of David Livingstone and Robert Louis Stevenson.

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.

Note describing séance event: "Walter correctly describes L's [perhaps Lillian's] deceased father and brother. On April 14, Walter sees an old gentleman and young man present - see notes. Direct voice giving instructions so that all can hear clearly - we notice he cannot say 'Rs'. Voice fairly loud but hoarse." The séance note is attached to another sheet of paper with the date April 1929.

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.

Séance observer's handwritten notation adjacent to automatic writing - "April 1929 - Arthur Hamilton writes."
Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.

Arthur Hamilton's automatic writing delivered via the medium and interpreted by a séance observer - "we want tell you that we love you."

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.

August 22, 1926. More automatic writing, by a different individual who is identified on the next photo. There has been an attempt to decipher the handwriting:

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.

Automatic writing - signature of David Livingstone.

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.

Isaac Pitblado and appearance of spirit Lucy. This photograph is especially interesting, as it depicts the spirit Lucy, who appears to be seated in a chair. A modern viewer may wonder - did she have sufficient substance to sit in a chair, and was a chair put in place with the expectation that she would appear? Noted Winnipeg lawyer Isaac Pitblado participated in this séance. In the photo, Mr. Pitblado is controlling the hands of the medium, Mary Marshall, as well as the hands of J.A. Hamilton and W.B. Cooper, during a séance on March 10, 1930, in which the spirit Lucy materialized beside Mrs. Marshall. Lucy had been a nun living in a convent in Ireland and died in her 20s. 

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.

There was a careful method followed for the completion of the séance. For example, in this instance, when the sitting was over, Dr. Creighton outside [the séance room] cut the cord containing his seal and unpadlocked the door whereupon the sitters all filed out and were checked as to number by Dr. Creighton. The men were then immediately inspected by Dr. Creighton and the ladies by Mrs. Creighton. Mr. Pitblado and Dr. TGH then returned to the séance room with W.E. Hobbs, and Mr. Pitblado himself withdrew two plate holders with the exposed film from two of the cameras and took them to the photographic dark room where he and Dr. TGH developed them.

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.

Attendance record of séances May 1928 to May 1935.

The proceedings of each séance were carefully recorded in Séance Registers. There are many such Séance Registers in the Hamilton Family collection and this is a single page sample from 1927, containing detailed information regarding psychic activities. No doubt the RLS notation in this entry refers to Robert Louis Stevenson.

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.

All séance participants were required to sign affidavits attesting to the facts of the séance and that they did nothing to cause fraudulent séance results. The next two photos show the front and back of the affidavit of Donald B. MacDonald.

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.

Photo taken of Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.

Dr. Hamilton spoke at many events about his psychic experiments. This is an article from a New York newspaper that resulted from his talk at Carnegie Hall in November 1929 under the auspices of the American Society for Psychical Research. 

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.
Daily Sketch article dated October 3, 1932 including information submitted by Dr. Hamilton. He had presented some of his séance findings in London, England during the summer of 1932.

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.
The next two photographs show a letter dated July 23, 1932 that Lady Conan Doyle wrote inviting Dr. and Mrs. Hamilton to visit her during their time in England. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was deceased by this time and I have been unable to locate any letters written by him in the Hamilton Family collection.

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.
The Rt. Hon. William Lyon McKenzie King wrote to the Hamiltons on August 7, 1933 requesting a visit with them while in Winnipeg. He was Prime Minister of Canada off and on from 1921 to 1948 and was the Leader of the Opposition in 1933 when he visited them on August 20, 1933. Although McKenzie King didn't experience a séance, he discussed the psychic work and examined photographs. He recorded in his diary that the Hamilton experiments are "amazing beyond all words" and he believed "absolutely in all that Hamilton and his wife and daughter" had told him. He corresponded with the family for some time afterwards.

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.
Dr. Hamilton's health began to fail under the heavy load of carrying out his practice, lecturing, composing papers, and carrying out twice a week sittings. He contracted influenza and suffered a heart attack and died on April 7, 1935. In explaining the teleplasm phenomenon, he said, "I regard teleplasm as a highly sensitive substance, responsive to other-world energies, and at the same time, visible to us in our physical world. Teleplasm constitutes an intervening substance, enabling transcendental intelligence, by ideoplastic or other unknown processes, to transmit the other-world concept of energy-forms, objective to them, and put them into terms of our world and understanding."

Photo courtesy of Linda Horodecki.


Psychic experiments continued after Dr. Hamilton's death, but in a much smaller scale. Dr. Hamilton himself was visualized during a séance on May 22, 1939 during which a teleplasmic mass containing the faces of Dr. Hamilton and a former romantic interest, Ms. Clelland, materialized above the head of the medium, Mary Marshall. From séance notes: "Medium in trance state: 'Oh, Lillian, I saw Dr. a young man with a pretty young woman who was not you.' Lillian - laughing: 'Oh that is all right - what did she look like?' Mary M. (medium): 'Yes, he knew her. He was once engaged to her. Her name was Lucile. You, Mrs. Hamilton, had nothing to do with the breaking of this engagement. She predeceased him and now he has met her on the other side. You know why the engagement was broken. No one else knows this but you.' "


Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.
The next photo is a close-up of Dr. Hamilton and Lucile Clelland. Note by Lillian Hamilton: "To say that I was amazed by this revelation is to put it mildly. TGH was engaged to a girl called 'Lucy' and it is true that I had nothing to do with the breaking of this tie. It all happened before I met him. TG spoke of this engagement - once - and that was during our honeymoon. He never again referred to this incident, until now."

Photo taken by Linda Horodecki. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.

A photograph of Lucile Clelland. Item from the Hamilton Family collection, Archives & Special Collections, University of Manitoba.


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